# Calculating the Probability of some Event (E)

Probability can be used to describe the relationship between given values and the chance/probability of some event occuring. This post will outline how we describe probability of some event given a fitted distribution. We will fit a distribution to then calculate the survival function using the z-score of our limit given a fitted distribution.

```
from scipy import stats
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import altair as alt
alt.data_transformers.enable('json')
```

`DataTransformerRegistry.enable('json')`

`df = pd.read_csv('example_parameter.csv')`

# maximum likelihood estimate

In essence we either try distributions until it fits the data the best, or we know a analytical solution for the distribution at hand and get the best fitted distribution of the data right away.

```
mu, std = stats.norm.fit(df)
mu, std
```

`(5.669365294764912, 1.7405441476684247)`

```
# x between -3 and above with .001 steps.
x_axis = np.arange(
-3,
mu + 5 * std,
0.001
)
# Mean = mu, SD = std.
y_axis = stats.norm.pdf(
x_axis,
mu,
std
)
# plot
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['x'] = x_axis
df['y'] = y_axis
alt.Chart(data=df).mark_line().encode(
x='x:Q',
y='y:Q'
).properties(
title='Probability'
)
```

since we have now fitted a curve around a mu (i.e. not around 0) which is the standard way of showing a distribution. We will here demonstrate how to calculate the likelihood of being above a certain value based on the data that we have seen using the survival function.

# 2. probability of the survival function

### is the $(1 - cdf)$ where cdf is the cumulative distribution function

```
# plot
x_axis = x_axis
y_axis = 1 - stats.norm.cdf(x_axis, mu, std)
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['parameter'] = x_axis
df['1 - cdf'] = y_axis
line = alt.Chart(df).mark_line().encode(
x='parameter:Q',
y='1 - cdf:Q'
).properties(
title='Probability of being above limit'
)
vertical_y = np.arange(
0,
2,
0.001
)
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['vertical_y'] = vertical_y
df['limit'] = limit
threshold = pd.DataFrame([{"threshold": limit}])
rule = alt.Chart(threshold).mark_rule(color='firebrick').encode(
alt.X('threshold:Q', title='parameter')
)
line + rule
```

# 3. take the z-score of the fitted distribution

Since each distribution is centered around $mu$ we need to center our limit value against a normal distribution. This is where we calculate the z-score from the distribution.

$$ z = \frac{(value - mu)}{std} $$

which says how many standard deviations we are from its $mu$.

recall again that we want to see the probability of somethign accuring above the limit value. i.e. what is the probability that we exceed this value

```
# set the limit of the measure
limit = 9
z = (limit - mu) / std
z
```

`1.9135594519085861`

since we now have center our limit value around the $mu$ we need to apply the calculation for the probability given a distrubution that we assume with this calculation.

meaning a $\mu=0$ and a $std=1$

```
# x between -3 and above with .001 steps.
x_axis = np.arange(
-3,
mu + 5 * std,
0.001
)
# Mean = mu, SD = std.
y_axis = stats.norm.pdf(
x_axis,
0,
1
)
# plot
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['x'] = x_axis
df['y'] = y_axis
alt.Chart(data=df).mark_line().encode(
x='x:Q',
y='y:Q'
).properties(
title='Probability'
)
```

```
# With z score we can now use a normal distribution for our calculations
# plot
x_axis = x_axis
y_axis = 1 - stats.norm.cdf(x_axis, 0, 1)
df = pd.DataFrame()
df['parameter'] = x_axis
df['1 - cdf'] = y_axis
line = alt.Chart(df).mark_line().encode(
x='parameter:Q',
y='1 - cdf:Q'
).properties(
title='Probability of being above limit'
)
vertical_y = np.arange(
0,
2,
0.001
)
threshold = pd.DataFrame([
{"prev_threshold": limit},
{"z_threshold": z}
])
rule = alt.Chart(threshold).mark_rule(color='firebrick').encode(
x='prev_threshold:Q',
opacity=alt.OpacityValue(0.6)
)
rule2 = alt.Chart(threshold).mark_rule(color='firebrick').encode(
alt.X('z_threshold:Q'),
size=alt.SizeValue(2)
)
line + (rule + rule2)
```

With the calculated z-score, we now have a way of also using the normal distribution without the need to explicitly tell $\mu, std$ for the distribution.

## Back to the real world!!

Instead of writing the survival function which we will explicitly calculate the probability like so:

```
# score of the survival function
p = stats.norm.sf(limit, mu, std)
p
```

`0.02783823512029548`

We can now instead use the z-score for each call to a distribution.

```
# score of the survival function
p = stats.norm.sf(z)
p
```

`0.02783823512029548`

And we can see that it gives the same probability, just using different scales for the $\mu$, $std$